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Physical review letters Essay

Physics Magazine

(多图预警)@渡子厄 的答案和@Bohn 并不矛盾。抛开物理和生物的领域区别不谈,PRL之所以影响因子低,完全是杂志主动定位的结果。以下内容主要是为 @Bohn的答案做些数据补充,主要通过H-index和non-citable items的比较来证明一点:以PRL的地位,其影响因子完全是可以调控的。本答案无意评价哪个期刊孰优孰劣,只是希望科研从业者不要只因为某一方面的指标而厚此薄彼。

以下全部数据和图表都来自于一个学术期刊数据库,SCImago Log & Area Rank(SJR : Scientific Magazine Rankings), 其囊括了Scopus上的所有学术期刊。这个数据库是免费的。我们不生产数据,我们只是数据的搬运工。

首先,PRL的影响因子到底低不低?就影响因子而言,PRL的竞争对手主要是谁?

我们将所有Physics and additionally Astronomy 领域的期刊以过去两年平均每篇文章的被引次数(类似影响因子但仍然有一些出入)排序:


在全部1005个Physics plus Physical evaluation letters PRL排在第38位:


这么一看,过去两年PRL上文章的平均被引用次数仅仅(?)位于所有期刊的前3.8%,好像还挺低的。但是,在排名前40的期刊中,有23个期刊主要发表综述(review),综述对影响因子的提升作用,你懂的。

其余17个期刊中,2000年之前创刊的只有三个:APS的PRL(创刊于1958年),

Elsevier的Advances through Colloid and Physical evaluation letters Science(1967),

IOP的Astrophysical Log, Product Series(1990),

以及Wiley旗下的Progress through Photovoltaics: Exploration plus 2012 planet closing post essay through Photovoltaics: Research in addition to Applications是2011年以后才超越PRL的(见下图绿线和红线),原因自然是最近几年火起来的光伏领域的研究。

其余的是:

Nature Putting up Group旗下的NPG Asian countries Components (创刊于2010年)

和Light:Science together with Applications(2012年),

以及Nature Materials(2002)、

Nature Physics(2005)、

Nature Nanotechnology(2006)、

Nature Photonics(2007)、

Nature Communications(2010)。

ACS旗下的Nano Letters(2001)

和ACS Nano(2007)。

Wiley旗下的Advanced Practical Materials(2001)

和Laser as well as Photonics Reviews(2007)。Elsevier旗下的Physics connected with physical examine letters Deep Universe(2012)。

最后,是APS的Physical Overview X(2011)。

结论1:单纯就影响因子(准确的说是过去两年平均被引次数)而言,PRL的主要竞争对手是2000年以后创刊的新杂志。不以review为主老牌物理学期刊中PRL的影响因子(同上)常年位于前三名。

接下来长话短说,我们直接看除了影响因子之外另一个最具有份量的数据:H-index。以下是所有Physics not to mention Astronomy 领域的期刊H-index最高的前十名:


PRL的H-index远超第二名的APL和第三名的PRB。

等一下,刚才在看影响因子的时候,好像并没有出现APL和PRB。这两个H-index的榜眼和探花甚至没有进入影响因子的前40名。这么一比较,PRL已经很不容易了呢。

而PRL的主要竞争对手之一,Nature Physics的排名在第32位:


结论2:PRL的H-index远高于其他杂志,处于统治地位。

现在,我们用另外两个数据来回答问题:为什么PRL的影响因子低。我们主要和Nature Physics作比较。第一个原因: @Bohn 提到的发文量。

以下数据是2014年全年总发文量的前15名。注意这个“total docs”既包括可以引用的也包括不可引用的。


PRL以2768篇发文量排在第11位。那么Nature系列的在哪儿呢?


除了Nature Communication以外,其他四个Nature子刊的发文量都还不到PRL的十分之一!

那么回过头来看平均被引用次数,Nature Materials的平均被引次数是PRL的十倍吗?细思恐极啊

(插播一个不直接相关的数据:过去三年总引用数:)


结论3:PRL的发文量是Nature子刊(Nature Communication除外)的十倍有余。这巨大的发文量直接导致了PRL的低影响因子,即使PRL的总引用数完爆其他杂志,是Nature子刊的两倍(Nature Communication)甚至4至5倍(其余Nature子刊)。

还有另外一个原因,是其他答案中没有提到过的,既non-citable documents。

一篇刊发了的文章,究竟要不要纳入到影响因子的计算范围内,是由Thomson Reuters说了算的。而在这个过程中,出版社是可以和Thomson Reuters拉锯的。举个例子,Plos Medicine的主编写道(大意如此):如果Thomson Reuters正确的考量我们杂志可引用文章的范围,我们的影响因子应该是11而不是3.

(原文:During a training for our conversations through Thompson Medical, PLoS Medicine's likely physical critique letters factor—based in the actual identical content articles released throughout the similar year—seesawed involving seeing that a lot because 11 (when sole researching articles and reviews usually are moved into in to all the denominator) to make sure you a reduced amount of in comparison with 3 (when nearly just about all report variations within a journal spot are usually contained, seeing that Thomson Scientific acquired in the beginning done—wrongly, we argued, once judging these kinds of posting kinds together with corresponding varieties shared by several other medical related publications.

来源:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1475651/)

过去三年中,物理学期刊citable documents的排名节选如下:

和总发文数的排名相比,在citable documents的排名里,Nature子刊和PRL的排名差距被进一步拉大。具体到单个期刊每一年citable ducoments的比例,我们也可以用Nature Physics和PRL的对比一下。

这是PRL的逐年比例,最高时non-citable doc占比5.44%:


这是Nature Physics的逐年比例,最低时占比10.71%,且呈逐年上升趋势:


结论4:PRL的non-citable documents占比常年稳定在5%左右的低水平,极高的citable 50 essays little one kustomers analysis documents占比低。以PRL的江湖地位,编辑部想提高影响因子简直就是分分钟的事。但是不同的杂志有不同的定位和风格。毕竟PRL创刊的年代比影响因子出现的年代早了17年(1958 vs.1975),不可能以影响因子为导向去创刊。事实上,对影响因子的争议也一直存在,详见Impact factor。

另外,Nature Physics并不是一味以提高影响因子为目标,毕竟常年有30%左右的文章没有在接下来的一年里得到引用:


而PRL的这一比例常年维持在10%左右。背后的可能原因有很多,在没有足够的信息之前就不分析了:

  

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