Causes of spontaneous abortion include:
- Acute (influenza, typhoid, malaria, syphilis, etc.) andchronic diseases of the pregnant woman.
- Not complete development of female genital organs.
- Transmitted inflammatory diseases of genital organs.
- Diseases of vital organs – cardiac diseases and diseases ofthe blood vessels, as well as liver and kidneys.
- Vitamin deficiency and toxicosis.
- Physical or psychological trauma
Types of Abortion
There are different types of performing an operation to terminatea pregnancy, with each operation designed to be performed only ata certain period of pregnancy. Each of them has its ownpeculiarities and complications.
- Mini-abortion. Mini-abortion is applied before the 4 weeks ofpregnancy. Contraindications to the mini-abortion may begynecological or general inflammatory and infectious diseases.
- Classical abortion. The essence of abortion is to remove afertilized egg from the uterus.
- The method of intraamnial administration of fluids is oftenused.
- When the gestation period is up to 27 weeks, the method ofintravenous injection of prostaglandins that causes labor can beused.
- The operation of a small cesarean section is usually appliedat a period of 18–27 weeks, but if necessary, can be used at aperiod of 13 weeks to the very last days of pregnancy.
Mortality after Complications of Abortion
Abortion is considered unsafe when the termination of pregnancyis committed either by a person who does not have the appropriatequalifications, or in conditions that do not meet the minimummedical requirements, or in the presence of both of thesefactors.
Personnel, skills, and medical standards that are considered safefor abortion are different with medical abortions (which arecarried out solely with the help of medication) and with surgicalabortions (which are carried out using manual or electricalaspiration). In addition, the skills and medical standardsnecessary for conducting safe abortion are determined by theduration of pregnancy and the constantly changing scientific andtechnical level.
Women, including adolescent girls who consider their pregnancy tobe undesirable, often resort to unsafe abortions when they cannotabort with safe means. Among the factors preventing safe abortionare:
- Restrictive laws
- Limited choice of services
- High price
- The reluctance of health care providers to engage in abortionfor reasons of conscience.
- Useless requirements, such as mandatory waiting periods,compulsory counseling, misleading information, third partyauthorization, and medically useless analyzes that delay thereceipt of assistance at a later date.
Based on 2008 data, WHO estimates that approximately 22 millionunsafe abortions occur each year, causing 47,000 deaths and morethan 5 million complications.
Accessibility of Treatment during Complications with Abortion
When preparing an abortion essay, you can also mention theopportunities of treatment with complications from an abortion.Health care providers are required to provide life-saving medicalcare to any woman who has had complications after abortion,including treatment of complications after unsafe abortion,regardless of the legal status of the abortion. However, in somecases, the treatment of complications after abortion is carriedout only if the woman provides information about those whoconducted the illegal abortion.
The practice of getting confessions from women who have appliedfor emergency medical care as a result of illegal abortion andthe statutory requirement for doctors and other health workers toreport cases of women, who had abortions, causes delay in theprovision of care and increases the risk to women’s health andlife. The UN human rights standards call on countries to provideprompt and unconditional treatment to anyone who wants to receiveemergency medical care.
Medical Indications for Abortion
The main indications for abortion are fetal death in the womb ora threat to the life of the mother, due to her condition orabnormal pregnancy (e.g. ectopic pregnancy). Also, indicationsfor abortion are inappropriate intrauterine development or theneed for medical procedures that adversely affect it (forexample, organ transplantation). In most cases, the finaldecision on the use of artificial abortion remains with thepregnant woman or her relatives.
Abortion and Mental Health for Abortion Essay
A significant place in the controversy surrounding the issue ofabortion is whether it affects mental health. Most scientificpublications, the WHO recommendations for obstetricians andgynecologists suggest that a lot of women go through an abortionwithout mental effects. Many studies show that the percent ofmental diseases among women who had abortion is higher than thosewho gave birth or are not pregnant females of the same age. Itshould be borne in mind that these results do not imply theexistence of a causal relationship between abortion and mentaldisorders, but may reflect the consequences of pre-conditionsalready existing for the disease. A number of researchers andinstitutions consider the question of the existence of such aconnection not fully understood. Researchers who assert thatthere is a high risk of psychiatric hospitalization afterabortion indicate that the consequences for mental health may notoccur immediately, but long after the abortion.
- Post-Abortion Syndrome
- In your abortion essay, you can state that post-abortionsyndrome usually refers to the following phenomena andconditions:
- Abortion-related flashbacks
- Avoidance of situations that are reminiscent of abortion
This expression was first used in 1981 by an anti-abortionist andfamily psychotherapist Vincent Ru, testifying in the US Congress.He stated that he had observed a post-traumatic stress disorderthat developed as a reaction to stress as a result of a previousabortion, and suggested that this phenomenon should be referredto as a post-abortion syndrome.
Although some studies indicate a statistical correlation betweenabortion and depression, anxiety, suicidal behavior, and impairedsexual function in a small number of women, these studies aregenerally methodologically flawed and do not take into accountintervening factors. Better research invariably establishes theabsence of a causal relationship between abortion and emotionalwell-being. The correlations found in some works can be explainedby social circumstances and psychological health factors thatpreceded abortion. It has been established that the probabilityof experiencing negative reactions is increased by such factorsas emotional attachment to pregnancy, lack of external supportand conservative attitude towards abortion.
Authors advocating the use of the concept of post-abortionsyndrome say that its research is complicated by factors such asa lack of motivation to participate in studies in aborted women,a wide variety of negative emotional reactions that are difficultto take into account in one study, different reaction times, andthe inability of such standard methods, like surveys and tests,for the analysis of deep mental trauma.
Meanwhile, in 2008, a group of specialists at Johns HopkinsUniversity conducted a systematic analysis of medical literatureand concluded that the most qualitative studies indicate thatthere is no significant difference in the long-term mental healthstatus between US women who have decided to terminate theirpregnancies and women, who did not make such a decision. The leadauthor of this study, Dr. Robert Bloom, said that the beststudies do not confirm the existence of a post-abortion syndrome,similar to post-traumatic stress disorder. The researchers alsonoted that the negative consequences of abortion for mentalhealth are systematically revealed in studies with the greatestmethodological flaws, and stated that scientists continue toconduct research based on a politically biased formulation of theproblem.